Chakma or Sakya: What is Chakma ?


Many peoples are very curious of the meaning Chakma. Even we so called Chakma are confused of word "Chakma".According of my opinion the word "Chakma" derived from Pali word "Cakkhuma"(cakkhu-eyes) which means endowed with all the foremost; one who transcends all (sabbabibhu ); who have good perception ( sanna), wisdom.

According of Sanskrit Dictionary the "Sakya" which means Capable; Able. See the genealogy of Sakya found in Hindu Religious text like Vishnu Purana IV, Bhagavata Purana and in Brahma Purana According of Pali -English Dictionary by T.W Rhys Davids, william Stede (page 259-287) the word "Cakkhuma" meant the eyes of the Buddha or complete intuition. Prof A.P Buddhadatta Mahathera mentioned in "Concise Pali English Dictionary as "Cakkhumamantu"(adj) means endowed with eyes (wisdom)... (cakkhuni assabhagavato santiti bhagava cakkhuma ).

In the book called "Wild Races of the Eastern Frontier of India" by Thomas Herbert Lewin (page 165) mentioned ""Chukma" which is very closed of above mentioned . According of Thomas, the Chukma are descendant of ancient Campa or Campak Nagar, the modern Bengal and Assam but been residing in Arakhan (Burma) for long which comparatively absorb their dialect. It is mentioned by Chinese pilgrimage "Fa Hian" in Calcutta Review vol. 19-21 (page 257-261) that it could be possible the "Cakkhuma"or Sakya left Campak Nagar ,ancient Magadha due to aggression and massacred by the King Virudhaka in 3rd century BC, which is just after the Buddha passed away. Since the king Virudhaka was powerful, many Cakkhuma(Sakya) left their land ,scattered in many directions, some of them reached to Arakhan (Burma) and many settled in Chittagong Hill Tracts.

In the Encyclopedia of Geography Hugh Murray, William Wallace, Robert Jamson- 1837(page 357-361) mentioned ""CHOOMEAS"" are live in Chittagong Hill Tracts, they cultivate agriculture and lived in peaceful manner. (See some of the maps in where cakkhuma or sakyas lived in ancient India). In the ""Wild Races of South-Eastern India" by Thomas Herbert Lewin (page 158-162) mentioned there are tribes called "Chukma" lived in Chittagong Hill Tracts are largest dominant group who are rightful appellation of present Chittagong Hill Tracts. He farther mentioned in Burmese this "Chukma" tribes are known as Thek, Tsakma ,Tsak or Doingnak. Thomas mentioned the "Chukma" are intelligent and peaceful who are originally held from Campak nagar situated in the North Western province of Hindustan.He even mentioned the ""Chukma" are kshatriya descent from Campa.

According of Chinese Pilgrimage Fa Hian who travelled to India in 429 AD, the kingdom of Campa ,situated not far from present Bhagulpore, Assam (please see the maps). All the above-mentioned clearly indicate the Chakmas were living in Campa or Campak nagar in Magodha state of ancient India. They left Magodha due to aggression of King Magodha. Look still the Chakmas didn't forget the word Magodha , why? In every day to day life the Chakmas used word ""Magodha"" for unhappy and in unusual mood, why??? It is because in we Chakmas were in Magodha and had bad times due to King Virudhaka .For survival, the Sakya changed their title to Sak . Later the writers used "Chukma", it could have derived from original pali word cakkhuma and Chukma, which are very closed to present word "Chakma". All these happened due to mis-spell and wrong listening by past writers. Language Some writers say chakmas are origin from Burma. If it is correct then why Chakmas language are not similar to Burmese or other Mongolian languages. The Chakmas language are 100% Indo- aryan languages which strongly support that Chakmas are from Magodha.They do speak Magadhi languages or Tanti bhasa which were spoken in Ancient India.

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